PFY – Polyester Filament Yarn
Polyester filament yarn (PFY) is a long chain or synthetic polymer composed of an ester of a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid such as terephthalicacid. Polyester filament yarns are manufactured in a wide range of deniers and properties to suit virtually all textile requirements. Its physical characteristics include appearance Solid (form: Bobbin, Beam), Colour - Raw-white, white or dyed, Odourless, Melting point/range 240 - 260 °C, relative density 1.3 – 1.4 g/cm3, Insoluble in common solvents.
Filament yarns, which are made from PET polyester strands that are grouped together, are available as either monofilament, which is made from one untwisted strand of polyester, or multifilament, which is made from a group of polyester strands that are twisted depending on the fabric's use.
In 1935, the DuPont Chemical Company created polyester, and the fiber from the chemical compound was strong enough to be twisted into yarn similar to natural fibers.
Source of technology for PFY manufacturing is from either PFY manufacturing companies like Du-Pont, Toray, Teijin or from engineering companies like Zimmer, Lurgi, Didier, Inventa, Chemtex etc Major manufacturers of PFY in India are Baroda Rayon, Century Enka, Garware Nylons, J.K. Synthetics, Modipon, Nirlon, Orkay, Reliance and Shree Synthetics. Major international producers are Du-Pont, Celanese, Hoechst, Chung Shing, Far Eastern, HualonTeijin, Nan Ya Plastics, Oriented Chemical (Taiwan), Kolon, Sung Yong, Tong Yang (Korea), Toyobo, Toray, Teijin, Kanebo (Japan), AOC, Ashland Performance Chemicals, DAK Americas, LLC, Diolen Industrial Fibers BV, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Far Eastern Industrial (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Hyosung, Indo Rama Synthetics, Invista, JBF Industries Limited, Kolon Industries, Inc., Kordsa Global, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Montefibre SpA, Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Performance Fibers, Inc., Reichhold, Inc., Unifi, Inc., and Zhejiang GuXianDao Industrial Fiber Co., Ltd are some of the leading producers of PFY.
Nirlon started manufacturing PFY for the first time in India in 1967. In 2000 total polyester filament production was 814 ‘000 tons which reached to 2273 ‘000 tons in 2011 and is expected to touch 3287 ‘000 tonnes in 2016.
Globally polyester filament production in 2000 was 10907 ‘000 tonnes and in 2011 it was 25991 ‘000 tonnes which is expected to touch 32590 ‘000 tonnes in 2016.
Polyester filament growth is forecast at 4.3% per annum from the 23.6 million tons of 2010 and the 26.0 million of 2011 which is split: 23.5 million tons textile filament growing at 4.3% per annum; 1.9 million tons industrial filament growing at 4.6% per annum; and 0.6 million tons of other filament (including spunbonded and BCF) growing at 5.4% per annum. In textile filament China has 72% of the world market followed by India with 8%.
Textile mill consumption for acrylic worldwide is put at 1.98 million tons in 2011 (up 1.8%). For nylon filament 2011 is estimated at 3.39 million tons (down 0.6%), for polyester filament at 26.0 million tons (up 10.2%), and for polyester staple up just 2.8% at 13.7 million tons. China however grew in 2011 by 2.9% in acrylic, and declined by 1.9% in nylon filament. In polyester filament it grew by 13.9% and in polyester staple by just 0.8%.
Acrylic in 2012 is forecast worldwide to decline by 0.6%, but nylon filament to grow by 0.9%, polyester filament by 6.4% and polyester staple by 3.4%. In 2012 China’s mill demand for acrylic is forecast to grow by 1.1% and for nylon filament by an astonishing 7.1% (partly in response to a weak 2011). For polyester filament it is expected to grow by 8.1% with polyester staple up 4.7%. Over 2010-20 average growth for acrylic worldwide is forecast at 0.2% per annum and for nylon filament at 1.3% per annum. For polyester filament it is put at 4.3% per annum.
PFY is mainly used in Home Furnishing Fabrics, Fashion Fabrics, Denim, Terry Towel and others. Filament yarn having trilobal bright lustre is widely used in making curtains, bed-sheets and carpets. Polyester filament yarns is used in knitting and weaving to make design on frocks and home-textiles and making of webbings
Polyester filament yarns are manufactured either from molten polymer orpolyethylene terephthalic acid (PET) chips by melt spinning process. In thisprocess molten polymer from a manifold is metered through variousspinnerettes, having number of holes, to form filaments. These filamentsare then solidified by air-quenching and wound on take-up winders afterapplication of spin-finish. The yarns manufactured could be UDY (un-drawn yarn), POY (partially oriented yarn) or FDY (fully drawn yarn)depending upon the winder speed and heatsetting methods