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PFY – Polyester Filament Yarn

Polyester filament yarn (PFY) is a long chain or synthetic polymer composed of an ester of a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid such as terephthalicacid. Polyester filament yarns are manufactured in a wide range of deniers and properties to suit virtually all textile requirements. Its physical characteristics include appearance Solid (form: Bobbin, Beam), Colour - Raw-white, white or dyed, Odourless, Melting point/range 240 - 260 °C, relative density 1.3 – 1.4 g/cm3, Insoluble in common solvents.

Filament yarns, which are made from PET polyester strands that are grouped together, are available as either monofilament, which is made from one untwisted strand of polyester, or multifilament, which is made from a group of polyester strands that are twisted depending on the fabric's use.

In 1935, the DuPont Chemical Company created polyester, and the fiber from the chemical compound was strong enough to be twisted into yarn similar to natural fibers.

Source of technology for PFY manufacturing is from either PFY manufacturing companies like Du-Pont, Toray, Teijin or from engineering companies like Zimmer, Lurgi, Didier, Inventa, Chemtex etc Major manufacturers of PFY in India are Baroda Rayon, Century Enka, Garware Nylons, J.K. Synthetics, Modipon, Nirlon, Orkay, Reliance and Shree Synthetics. Major international producers are Du-Pont, Celanese, Hoechst, Chung Shing, Far Eastern, HualonTeijin, Nan Ya Plastics, Oriented Chemical (Taiwan), Kolon, Sung Yong, Tong Yang (Korea), Toyobo, Toray, Teijin, Kanebo (Japan), AOC, Ashland Performance Chemicals, DAK Americas, LLC, Diolen Industrial Fibers BV, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Far Eastern Industrial (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Hyosung, Indo Rama Synthetics, Invista, JBF Industries Limited, Kolon Industries, Inc., Kordsa Global, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Montefibre SpA, Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Performance Fibers, Inc., Reichhold, Inc., Unifi, Inc., and Zhejiang GuXianDao Industrial Fiber Co., Ltd are some of the leading producers of PFY.

Nirlon started manufacturing PFY for the first time in India in 1967. In 2000 total polyester filament production was 814 ‘000 tons which reached to 2273 ‘000 tons in 2011 and is expected to touch 3287 ‘000 tonnes in 2016.

Globally polyester filament production in 2000 was 10907 ‘000 tonnes and in 2011 it was 25991 ‘000 tonnes which is expected to touch 32590 ‘000 tonnes in 2016.

Polyester filament growth is forecast at 4.3% per annum from the 23.6 million tons of 2010 and the 26.0 million of 2011 which is split: 23.5 million tons textile filament growing at 4.3% per annum; 1.9 million tons industrial filament growing at 4.6% per annum; and 0.6 million tons of other filament (including spunbonded and BCF) growing at 5.4% per annum. In textile filament China has 72% of the world market followed by India with 8%.

Textile mill consumption for acrylic worldwide is put at 1.98 million tons in 2011 (up 1.8%). For nylon filament 2011 is estimated at 3.39 million tons (down 0.6%), for polyester filament at 26.0 million tons (up 10.2%), and for polyester staple up just 2.8% at 13.7 million tons. China however grew in 2011 by 2.9% in acrylic, and declined by 1.9% in nylon filament. In polyester filament it grew by 13.9% and in polyester staple by just 0.8%.

Acrylic in 2012 is forecast worldwide to decline by 0.6%, but nylon filament to grow by 0.9%, polyester filament by 6.4% and polyester staple by 3.4%. In 2012 China’s mill demand for acrylic is forecast to grow by 1.1% and for nylon filament by an astonishing 7.1% (partly in response to a weak 2011). For polyester filament it is expected to grow by 8.1% with polyester staple up 4.7%. Over 2010-20 average growth for acrylic worldwide is forecast at 0.2% per annum and for nylon filament at 1.3% per annum. For polyester filament it is put at 4.3% per annum.

PFY is mainly used in Home Furnishing Fabrics, Fashion Fabrics, Denim, Terry Towel and others. Filament yarn having trilobal bright lustre is widely used in making curtains, bed-sheets and carpets. Polyester filament yarns is used in knitting and weaving to make design on frocks and home-textiles and making of webbings

Filament yarns can be manufactured according to different spinning methods. In Table 1 these methods are given:

Table-1: Different spinning methods
of filament yarns[2]
 
Melt-spinning   Solution spining  
       
  Dry - spinning Wet-spinning: Direct
solvent
Wet spinning:
Derivative-based
       
Polyamide 66 Cellulose diacetate Acrylic Viscore rayon
       
Polyamide 6 Cellulose triacetate Modacrylic  
       
  Acrylic Rayon  
       
Polyester Polyurethane Polyurethane  
       
Polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl alcohol  
       
Polyethylene Chlorinated PVC Aromatic Polyamide  
 


Production Process- Manufacturing Filament Yarn

Polymerization

1. To form polyester, dimethyl terephthalate is first reacted with ethylene glycol in the presence of a catalyst at a temperature of 302-410°F (150-210°C).

2. The resulting chemical, a monomer (single, non-repeating molecule) alcohol, is combined with terephthalic acid and raised to a temperature of 472°F (280°C). Newly-formed polyester, which is clear and molten, is extruded through a slot to form long ribbons.

Drying

3. After the polyester emerges from polymerization, the long molten ribbons are allowed to cool until they become brittle. The material is cut into tiny chips and completely dried to prevent irregularities in consistency.

Melt spinning

4. Polymer chips are melted at 500-518°F (260-270°C) to form a syrup-like solution. The solution is put in a metal container called a spinneret and forced through its tiny holes, which are usually round, but may be pentagonal or any other shape to produce special fibers. The number of holes in the spinneret determines the size of the yarn, as the emerging fibers are brought together to form a single strand.

5. At the spinning stage, other chemicals may be added to the solution to make the resulting material flame retardant, antistatic, or easier to dye.

Drawing the fiber

6. When polyester emerges from the spinneret, it is soft and easily elongated up to five times its original length. The stretching forces the random polyester molecules to align in a parallel formation. This increases the strength, tenacity, and resilience of the fiber. This time, when the filaments dry, the fibers become solid and strong instead of brittle.

7. Drawn fibers may vary greatly in diameter and length, depending on the characteristics desired of the finished material. Also, as the fibers are drawn, they may be textured or twisted to create softer or duller fabrics.

Winding

8. After the polyester yarn is drawn, it is wound on large bobbins or flat-wound packages, ready to be woven into material.

Polyester filament yarns are manufactured either from molten polymer orpolyethylene terephthalic acid (PET) chips by melt spinning process. In thisprocess molten polymer from a manifold is metered through variousspinnerettes, having number of holes, to form filaments. These filamentsare then solidified by air-quenching and wound on take-up winders afterapplication of spin-finish. The yarns manufactured could be UDY (un-drawn yarn), POY (partially oriented yarn) or FDY (fully drawn yarn)depending upon the winder speed and heatsetting methods


       
Capacity (kt) Actual Projected
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
RIL 750 1150 1150 1150 1150 1550
Indorama 300 300 300 300 300 300
JBF industries 260 260 260 260 260 260
Alok Industries 250 350 430 430 430 430
Garden Silks 190 290 360 360 360 360
Bhilosa 216 243 324 324 324 324
Others 616 1428 1616 1839 2149 1992
Total 2582 4021 4440 4663 4973 5216

Producer PFY: India Demand Supply
Actual Projected
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
(kt)  
"Capacity 2582 4021 4440 4663 4973 5216
"Prod/Cons            
"Imports            
"Exports            
"Consumption 1973 2380 2660 2940 3220 3500
           
"Cons Growth (%)   21% 12% 11% 10% 9%
Source: Industry


PFY - 100% end use consumption is textiles

 
 
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