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  • About
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  • Demand Supply
  • End Use Consumption
PFY – Polyester Filament Yarn

Polyester filament yarn (PFY) is a long chain or synthetic polymer composed of an ester of a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid such as terephthalic acid. Polyester filament yarns are manufactured in a wide range of deniers and properties to suit virtually all textile requirements. Its physical characteristics include appearance Solid (form: Bobbin, Beam), Colour - Raw-white, white or dyed, Odourless, Melting point/range 240 - 260 °C, relative density 1.3 – 1.4 g/cm3, Insoluble in common solvents.

Filament yarns, which are made from PET polyester strands that are grouped together, are available as either monofilament, which is made from one untwisted strand of polyester, or multifilament, which is made from a group of polyester strands that are twisted depending on the fabric's use.

In 1935, the DuPont Chemical Company created polyester, and the fiber from the chemical compound was strong enough to be twisted into yarn similar to natural fibers.

Source of technology for PFY manufacturing is from either PFY manufacturing companies like Du-Pont, Toray, Teijin or from engineering companies like Zimmer, Lurgi, Didier, Inventa, Chemtex etc. Major manufacturers of PFY in India are Baroda Rayon, Century Enka, Garware Nylons, J.K. Synthetics, Modipon, Nirlon, Orkay, Reliance and Shree Synthetics. Major international producers are Du-Pont, Celanese, Hoechst, Chung Shing, Far Eastern, HualonTeijin, Nan Ya Plastics, Oriented Chemical (Taiwan), Kolon, Sung Yong, Tong Yang (Korea), Toyobo, Toray, Teijin, Kanebo (Japan), AOC, Ashland Performance Chemicals, DAK Americas, LLC, Diolen Industrial Fibers BV, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Far Eastern Industrial (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Hyosung, Indo Rama Synthetics, Invista, JBF Industries Limited, Kolon Industries, Inc., Kordsa Global, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Montefibre SpA, Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Performance Fibers, Inc., Reichhold, Inc., Unifi, Inc., and Zhejiang GuXianDao Industrial Fiber Co., Ltd are some of the leading producers of PFY.

Nirlon started manufacturing PFY for the first time in India in 1967. In 2011-12 total polyester filament production in India was around 1388 KTA which reached 2763 KTA in 2015-16 and is expected to touch 3025 KTA in 2016-17.

PFY is mainly used in Home Furnishing Fabrics, Fashion Fabrics, Denim, Terry Towel and others. Filament yarn having trilobal bright lustre is widely used in making curtains, bed-sheets and carpets. Polyester filament yarns is used in knitting and weaving to make design on frocks and home-textiles and making of webbings .

Filament yarns can be manufactured according to different spinning methods. In Table 1 these methods are given:

Table-1: Different spinning methods
of filament yarns[2]
Melt-spinning   Solution spining  
  Dry - spinning Wet-spinning: Direct
Wet spinning:
Polyamide 66 Cellulose diacetate Acrylic Viscore rayon
Polyamide 6 Cellulose triacetate Modacrylic  
  Acrylic Rayon  
Polyester Polyurethane Polyurethane  
Polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl alcohol  
Polyethylene Chlorinated PVC Aromatic Polyamide  

Production Process- Manufacturing Filament Yarn


1. To form polyester, dimethyl terephthalate is first reacted with ethylene glycol in the presence of a catalyst at a temperature of 302-410°F (150-210°C).

2. The resulting chemical, a monomer (single, non-repeating molecule) alcohol, is combined with terephthalic acid and raised to a temperature of 472°F (280°C). Newly-formed polyester, which is clear and molten, is extruded through a slot to form long ribbons.


3. After the polyester emerges from polymerization, the long molten ribbons are allowed to cool until they become brittle. The material is cut into tiny chips and completely dried to prevent irregularities in consistency.

Melt spinning

4. Polymer chips are melted at 500-518°F (260-270°C) to form a syrup-like solution. The solution is put in a metal container called a spinneret and forced through its tiny holes, which are usually round, but may be pentagonal or any other shape to produce special fibers. The number of holes in the spinneret determines the size of the yarn, as the emerging fibers are brought together to form a single strand.

5. At the spinning stage, other chemicals may be added to the solution to make the resulting material flame retardant, antistatic, or easier to dye.

Drawing the fiber

6. When polyester emerges from the spinneret, it is soft and easily elongated up to five times its original length. The stretching forces the random polyester molecules to align in a parallel formation. This increases the strength, tenacity, and resilience of the fiber. This time, when the filaments dry, the fibers become solid and strong instead of brittle.

7. Drawn fibers may vary greatly in diameter and length, depending on the characteristics desired of the finished material. Also, as the fibers are drawn, they may be textured or twisted to create softer or duller fabrics.


8. After the polyester yarn is drawn, it is wound on large bobbins or flat-wound packages, ready to be woven into material.

Polyester filament yarns are manufactured either from molten polymer or polyethylene terephthalic acid (PET) chips by melt spinning process. In this process molten polymer from a manifold is metered through various spinnerettes, having number of holes, to form filaments. These filaments are then solidified by air-quenching and wound on take-up winders after application of spin-finish. The yarns manufactured could be UDY (un-drawn yarn), POY (partially oriented yarn) or FDY (fully drawn yarn)depending upon the winder speed and heat setting methods.

Capacity (kt) Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Projected
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
RIL 750 791 1178 1155 1155 1580
IRSL 249 249 249 300 300 300
JBF industries 257 257 257 260 260 260
Garden 212 212 212 360 220 220
Others 1677 1933 2604 2882 2542 2294
Total 3190 3442 4499 4957 4477 4654
Source: Industry

  PFY: India Demand Supply
Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual Projected
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Capacity 3190 3442 4499 4957 4477 4654
Production 1388 2385 2495 2777 2763 3025
Dom Sales 2211 2298 2503 2355 2477  
Imports 26 31 23 71 70  
Exports 317 571 467 626 606  
Consumption 2237 2330 2526 2426 2547 2746
Source: Industry

PFY - 100% end use consumption is textiles

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